Monday, December 9, 2019
Questions: 1. How will the culture affect the support provided for the aging population? 2. How will the two countries play out differently in managing the aging population? Answers: Introduction Asia is struggling with the issue of aging population. Population ageing is the shift in the distribution of countries population towards older age. This phenomenon is prevalent worldwide, but it is growing faster in less-developed areas. It means that more elderly person will be increasing in lower developed countries. The main reason for this is a sustained baby boom, hasty reduction in fertility and decline in mortality rate. It will have a severe impact on the rate of future economic growth, operation, and integrity of health care and well-being of the aging population. The issue of population aging has decreased considerably in Europe, but it will have a great impact in Asia. The article will identify two countries in Asia and compare and contrast the challenge faced by two countries in managing the ageing population. The study will critically analyze and look into various aspects related to issues of aging population. Demographic changes in two countries of Asia Japan and China are the two countries identified in Asia facing issues of aging population. Japan has the highest proportion of aging citizens. About 22% of the Japnaese population is greater than the age of 60. Over the past several years, Japan's demographic has shifted a lot. The countries population began falling from 2004, and it is ageing faster than any other planet. It is estimated that by 2050 the countries population will decline from 128 million in 2007 to 95 million in 2050. It has occurred due to low fertility rates, high life expectancy and decline of populations since 2011. The driving force for the change is advancement in health care, migration, and change in birth patterns. Japan had a history of low childbearing rate (Hanley Yamamura, 2015). Since the 1950s, the birth rate in Japan has been below population replacement level. The birth rate has dropped almost every year. Analyzing this trend into the long-term projection, it is estimated that about 25% will never marry and about 38% will never have babies. In addition to the decline in birth rate, Japan's population is also living longer. It has life-expectancy, and it is one of the healthiest countries in the world. Life-expectancy is expected to increase from 86 to 90 years for women and 79 to 84 years in men by 2055. Earlier there were six workers for every retiree but now it by 2025 it will be two workers for every retiree. It will have the impact on tax revenue, welfare and medical health of the population (Shirakawa 2012). China is the country with the highest number of population in the world. Two major factors in determining population aging are declining fertility and increasing longevity. China has experienced the fastest decline in fertility reducing from 6 births per women in 1995 to 2 births in the 1990s. By the year 2050, half of the population will be over 45 years of age and quarter of the population will be older than 65 years old. During the 19560s it, life expectancy was 50-60 years which increased to 72 in 2005. The impact of 1970s fertility decline was seen in 2005 histogram (Knox Marston, 2014).The fertility rate was only 1.7 in 2005. In 1950 China had a pyramid shaped structure with base comprising of young people, 4% of the population was above 65. By 2005 the 65+ population increased to 8%, and it is projected to rise to about 16% by 2030. To decrease the population they have adopted several strategies. One important policy is one child policy. China's population is rapidly aging du e to lower mortality rate, low birth rate, and one child policy. It will create a financial problem in the future, and the population will not be competitive in the future. The countries shift toward ageing population will have the huge impact on the economy and investment opportunities of countries. The Chinese government will then have to alter its budgetary policies (Scharping, 2013). Policies in two countries The Japan Government has implemented various policies to check the issue of aging population. One was the angel plan of 19955-1999. It was executed by Ministry of Education, Health, Labour, and Construction. It proposed an improvement in child care centers and maternity medical care system. There was one New Angel Policy' in 2000-2004. It had a higher target than previous policies. Another gender equality policy was implemented in 2005-2009 called the New New Angel Plan.' Its focus was on the independence of youth, giving support to family and employment and support in child rearing. Other alternative policies were provided in the form of economic assistance. The Government gave expenditure for pregnancy, child care, housing, and education (Ezeh et al., 2012). Social Security benefits were provided in the form of pensions, medical care, and financial support. Workplace environment was adjusted by the increase in work flexibility, enforcing vacation time, changing gender equality poli cy in corporate culture and availability of child care services for part-time workers. Japan Government is developing policies to encourage fertility and engage more population particularly women and children in the workforce. They gave incentive for family formation by giving an opportunity for child care, new benefits for children and state sponsor service. There are policies for engaging more women in the workplace to include longer maternity leave and legal protection against pregnancy discrimination (Campbell, 2014). One of the famous policies of China to check population control was one-child policy. It was introduced in 1980 and phased out in 2015. A significant amount of population was subjected to the strict one-child restriction. This system was exempted only for ethnic minorities. Only those couples were allowed to have a second child whose first child was a girl. They imposed fines for violation of the policy. They organized awareness programs and did inspection work to check violation. About 400 million births were prevented by this policy (Feng et al., 2013). The draconian law left an emotional, social and psychological scar on the population of the country and its citizens. The disparity in gender ratio is increased. But after analyzing the growth in an aging population of China, the Communist Party of China changed the policy to two-child policy on 29 October 2015. The new law finally came into force on January 1, 2016, after it was passed by the Standing Committee of The National Peop les Congress on 27 December 2015. This decision of China to lift one-child policy will be helpful in diversifying country aging population issue and increase the male population. The relaxed control system will resolve labor deficit and age population issue to some extent. Low birth rate also occurred due to personal choices. The United Nation has predicted older population by 2100. The population of major countries will be above the age of 65 (Gong et al., 2012). The challenge for International Organization is to reorient policies to control ageing population in countries like Asia. The number of elder person in the less developed country is expected to rise to 690 million by 2030. As the elderly population will be at high risk of disease and disability, it will put immense pressure on the health-care system. Therefore, it will be a challenge for developing countries to reorient health sectors by managing diseases and health care needs of elderly. Therefore, two major steps by International Policymakers are shifting health sector priorities and investing in support for old age. Population aging will be accompanied by an epidemiological shift in infectious diseases. To prevent diseases, WHO has launched Innovative Care for Chronic Conditions. According to that framework, health care system should provide support to reduce the burden of disease. It advises prevention approach that can mitigate the problem and give better lifestyle to citizens.U nited Nations Population Fund (UNPA) also works to create awareness about population ageing and address the challenges for society. It supports data collection to provide foundation for creating policies and integrating ageing issues in national development programs. Its primary focus is on policy creation, data collection, research, and advocacy. It supports development of evidence-based strategies that look after issues related to population ageing (Moulaert Biggs, 2013). Culture Japan has a multi-layered culture which is developing and transforming with time. It has aa history of deep tradition practice, but its society is always changing with increasing population, change in lifestyle and technology developments. Japanese people appear to be socially homogenous people. The country lies on the eastern coast of the Asian continent. It consists of five islands namely Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, and Okinawa. The country is highly urbanized and has high population density. Two major religions are Shinto and Buddhism. Japanese follow Shinto and Buddhist rituals in their life. They have a very tolerant attitude towards religion. Kimono is the famous traditional dress worn by Japanese people. Its staple food includes rice, baked fish, vegetables, etc. They use a large amount of alcohol in their diet. It is a tolerant country for drunken people. They have their form of entertainment (Fujita et al., 2013). China is a country known for the high population in the world. It is a multi-racial country with 55 ethnic groups. The Chinese culture is influenced by its long history and diverse ethnic groups. These groups have different customs and tradition which varies from town to cities. Different religion is practiced here, but it is mainly dominated by a Confucian value system. Different religions are Buddhism, Islam, Taoism, Christianity and other religions. Confucianism is nothing but quasi-religion. This value is present in China since its foundation by Confucius 2000 years ago. Confucianism values lay stress on self-restraint, maintaining the proper relationship with other and social harmony. It respects hierarchy and emphasizes loyalty in family relations and friend. It encourages human to be the perfect gentleman. These values are embedded in Chinese culture and behavior. Some people give great importance to developing the personal relationship in business. Dining and drinking are the best ways for Chinese to build relationship and business connections (Atchley et al., 2014). The diversity of the population is a challenge for health care system, its providers and policy makers. They have a challenge in delivering culturally competent services. This objective is achieved when health care services meet the social, cultural and linguistic needs of patients. The culture of different countries and its citizens have an impact on health service outcomes. A culturally competent health care system leads to the elimination of racial and ethnic disparities. It can be achieved by giving medical staff training on cultural competence and how to address cross-cultural issues in patients. The policies created for this purpose further reduces cultural and linguistic barriers in treating patients. The racial and ethnic group has a higher rate of morbidity and mortality due to illness. Therefore, health services should give more priority to improving conditions of the ethnic population (Barrera et al., 2013). Therefore from the overall report on the issue of aging population, it is recommended that culturally sensitive policies should be implemented that reduces the impact of ageing population. The primary purpose of health care system should be the improvement in safety, effectiveness, efficiency, equity and patient-centered care. Equity in health delivery will ensure that each and every individual receive quality care. The quality of care should not discriminate by race, ethnicity and personal characteristics of the patient. Quality care will be delivered by ensuring the safety of patients and taking care to avoid injuries. Timeliness should be maintained by minimizing delay in the treatment procedure. Patient-centered care should be provided that looks after individual patient needs and preference for treatment. Health care organizations can arrange for programs that create understanding of cultural competence in health care staff. A cultural competence assessment should be prepared, a nd changes should be implemented based on that assessment (Purnell, 2014). Conclusion From the detailed report above, it can be summarized that it was valuable information on the issue of population ageing worldwide and in countries in Asia. It mainly addresses the problem of population ageing in Japan and China. It described the challenges faced by the world in an increase of aging population. Based on the two countries, it gave the report on demographic changes since the last fifty years and what steps Government has taken to curb population ageing. It discusses the policies made by the country for addressing the issue of an aging population. It explained how the culture of different countries could affect health care service and cope with an ageing population. It gave recommendations on how health care services can develop culturally competent strategies in health care and mitigate the problem face in the good outcome of health care. Reference Atchley, P., Shi, J., Yamamoto, T. (2014). Cultural foundations of safety culture: A comparison of traffic safety culture in China, Japan and the United States.Transportation research part F: traffic psychology and behaviour,26, 317-325. Barrera Jr, M., Castro, F. G., Strycker, L. A., Toobert, D. J. (2013). Cultural adaptations of behavioral health interventions: A progress report.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,81(2), 196. Campbell, J. C. (2014).How policies change: The Japanese government and the aging society. Princeton University Press. Ezeh, A. C., Bongaarts, J., Mberu, B. (2012). Global population trends and policy options.The Lancet,380(9837), 142-148. Feng, W., Cai, Y., Gu, B. (2013). Population, Policy, and Politics: How Will History Judge China's OneÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã Child Policy?.PoPulation and develoPment review,38(s1), 115-129. Fujita, S., Seto, K., Ito, S., Wu, Y., Huang, C. C., Hasegawa, T. (2013). The characteristics of patient safety culture in Japan, Taiwan and the United States.BMC health services research,13(1), 1. Gong, P., Liang, S., Carlton, E. J., Jiang, Q., Wu, J., Wang, L., Remais, J. V. (2012). Urbanisation and health in China.The Lancet,379(9818), 843-852. Hanley, S. B., Yamamura, K. (2015).Economic and demographic change in preindustrial Japan, 1600-1868. Princeton University Press. Knox, P. L., Marston, S. A. (2014).Human geography: Places and regions in global context. Pearson. Moulaert, T., Biggs, S. (2013). International and European policy on work and retirement: Reinventing critical perspectives on active ageing and mature subjectivity.Human Relations,66(1), 23-43. Purnell, L. D. (2014).Guide to culturally competent health care. FA Davis. Scharping, T. (2013).Birth Control in China 1949-2000: Population policy and demographic development. Routledge. Shirakawa, M. (2012). Demographic changes and macroeconomic performance: Japanese experiences.Opening Remark at.
Monday, December 2, 2019
Some questions may require you to use financial calculator or Excel. (In the final exam, for students without financial calculator, writing down the formula will be enough. However, those formulas must be correct to get full credit. Therefore, it is a good practice to check whether you are correct by using Excel for these practice questions) 1. How are real options different from financial options? 2. Consider the following project data: (1)A $500 feasibility study will be conducted at t = 0. (2)If the study indicates potential, the firm will spend $1,000 at t = 1 to build a prototype. The best estimate now is that there is an 80 percent chance that the study will indicate potential, and a 20 percent chance that it will not. (3)If reaction to the prototype is good, the firm will spend $10,000 to build a production plant at t = 2. The best estimate now is that there is a 60 percent chance that the reaction to the prototype will be good, and a 40 percent chance that it will be poor. We will write a custom essay sample on Real Option or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Based on this information what is the projectÃ¢â¬â¢s net present value? Answer : -$1,104,607 4. If Diplomat goes ahead with this project today, the project will create additional opportunities five years from now (t = 5). The company can decide at t = 5 whether or not it wants to pursue these additional opportunities. Based on the best information that is available today, the company estimates that there is a 35 percent chance that its technology will be successful, in which case the future investment opportunities will have a net present value of $6 million at t = 5. There is a 65 percent chance that its technology will not succeed, in which case the future investment opportunities will have a net present value of -$6 million at t = 5. Diplomat. com does not have to decide today whether it wants to pursue these additional opportunities. Instead, it can wait until after it finds out if its technology is successful. However, Diplomat. com cannot pursue these additional opportunities in the future unless it makes the initial investment today. What is the estimated net present value of the project, after taking into account the future opportunities? Enter the following data inputs in the financial calculator: N = 5; I = 10; PMT = 0; FV = 2,100,000; and then solve for PV = $1,303,935. Step 3: Find the NPV of the entire project considering its future opportunities: -$1,104,607 + $1,303,935 = $199,328. (The following information applies to the next two problems. ) 5. Oklahoma Instruments (OI) is considering a project that has an up-front cost of $250,000. The projectÃ¢â¬â¢s subsequent cash flows critically depend on whether its products become the industry standard. There is a 50 percent chance that the products will become the industry standard, in which case the projectÃ¢â¬â¢s expected cash flows will be $110,000 at the end of each of the next five years. There is a 50 percent chance that the products will not become the industry standard, in which case the projectÃ¢â¬â¢s expected cash flows will be $25,000 at the end of each of the next five years. Assume that the cost of capital is 12 percent. Based on this information, what is the projectÃ¢â¬â¢s expected net present value? Answer : -$ 6,678 6. Now assume that one year from now OI will know if its products will have become the industry standard. Also assume that after receiving the cash flows at t = 1, the company has the option to abandon the project. If it abandons the project it will receive an additional $100,000 at t = 1, but will no longer receive any cash flows after t = 1. Assume that the abandonment option does not affect the cost of capital. What is the NPV of the project with this abandonment option? Answer : $4,066 or 4,067 The time line of cash flows are as follows. t=0 : -250,000 With probability 0. 5, t=1 to t=5 : 110,000 And with probability 0. 5, t=1 : 125,000
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Coursework on Technology Coursework on Countermeasures to mitigate exploitation of UNIX and Windows servers: Every organization utilizing the internet needs protection of its systems to ensure that the files of the organization are not destroyed by software, designed by hackers. The firm needs to have an elaborate security system to ensure that all its files are viewed by authorized personnel. The files need to be safely protected, and measures to back up the information valuable to the company, should be put in place. Loss of system files may make the system unstable, interfering with the normal working process of the business. A fortune 500 company undertakes many transactions on an annual basis, and deals with a lot of money. The company has many rivals in the market. Therefore, to protect the interests of the business, the company needs to buy a specialized security system to protect its files (Chirillo, 2002). As a security firm employed to handle the countermeasures needed to counter mitigate exploitation of UNIX and Windows servers, one of the counter measures would be application of patches and updates. This changes need to be evaluated and implemented in a timely manner with focus bearing on the effect of implementation against the effects of maintaining the current settings. Application of updates into the system mitigates both types of servers from malware, with the ability to propagate automatically. These security updates need to be applied regularly to protect the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s information. The change selected by the security officer are tested for practicality, the changes to the servers should have defined effects on the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s system files and incase of a problem the procedures to deal with it should be known. The update for these servers should be obtained from a secure resource. This ensures that the updates are trusted, and the company can implement the update on the servers, with ease. The source of this update may be the internal update servers that may be monitored to avoid external interference. Using internal servers to create updates for the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s system ensures that foreign severs have limited access to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s files and vital information. Freeware and trials lack adequate security measures to prevent attack from foreign servers. To protect the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s information, the company should formulate a rule to remove and avoid installation of these programs in computers in the network. This is because they offer avenues that an attacker may use to enter into the system. Depending on the servers used by the company, those programs that are not useful should be removed from the network. The company may opt for use of a strong firewall to reduce the traffic that lacks adequate authorization from reaching the servers. The firewall ensures that only those with the right security clearance have access to the information in the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s database. Some servers are capable of transferring and storing user files and data, like windows. If the servers are used by the company, it is necessary that the users conduct detection software to detect the malware that may be in the servers. This malware shored be removed from the system to prevent it from corrupting the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s file. Regular scans should be conducted on the system to ensure that there are no traces of unauthorized changes (Gregory, 2010). The organization should be advised to have a restoration file for all its data. A restoration file contains all the relevant information the administrator would want to restore into the system in the event of a failure that causes the system to fail. The security of the company is vital, and the system files need to be protected from unauthorized users. The secrets of the company may fall into the competitorÃ¢â¬â¢s hands, making the organization lose its competitive advantage. The company may also lose money through unauthorized accesses to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s resources. The work of the security officer is to ensure that the right measures are taken to ensure that the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s information is safe from unauthorized users.
Saturday, November 23, 2019
Definition and Examples of Aphaeresis in English Aphaeresis is aÃ rhetorical and phonological term for the omission of one or more sounds or syllables from the beginning of a word. Also spelled apheresis. Adjective: aphetic. Also called syllabic loss or initial vowel loss. Common examples of aphaeresis include round (from around), specially (from especially), and spy (from espy). Note that the deleted initial sound is usually a vowel. EtymologyFrom the Greek, taking away Examples and Observations Children learning to speak first tend to retain only the final syllable of words (-nette for marionnette, -range for orange), then two syllables (-anna for nanna, -octor for doctor). Loose pronunciation (xactly for exactly) has thus something childish about it. But in tention! (for Attention!) economy of effort and efficiency come into play.Like apocope, aphaeresis most commonly involves the slack use of an expression rather than a literary device.(Bernard Dupriez, A Dictionary of Literary Devices, trans. by Albert W. Halsall. Univ. of Toronto Press, 1991)New Words From OldAphaeresis has given us a number of new words, like drawing-room (from withdrawing-room), fend (from defend; whence fender), sport (from disport), and stain (from distain). A number are aphetic in the narrow sense: pert (from now obsolete apert, going back ultimately to Latin appertus open), peal (from appeal), mend (from amend), fray (from affray), the verb ply (from apply), the adjective live (from alive), spy (f rom espy), and tend (from both attend and intend). In the above cases, significant semantic development followed the aphaeresis, so that one does not normally connect in ones mind the shortened and the original longer forms.(The Merriam-Webster New Book of Word Histories, 1991) Aphaeresis in Contemporary SpeechContrary to the substitution and addition of syllables, syllabic loss, known as aphaeresis, is not at all uncommon. In particular, the constraints under which it operates are exactly the ones predicted by the speech error data. The omissions occur in word-initial positions and affect unstressed syllables containing reduced vowels. Quite often, the syllable only consists of a vowel. . . .Indeed, aphaeresis occurs on a wide scale in the spoken language of today (and yesterday). . . . Typical examples include about in How bout that? and unless in I aint going less you do. . . . Relaxed circumstances are all that is needed for aphaeresis to occur.(Thomas Berg, Linguistic Structure and Change: An Explanation From Language Processing. Oxford University Press, 1998)The Lighter Side of AphaeresisI cant kill the possum [for opossum], cause [for because] it might be innocent. I cant let the possum go, because it might be guilty. Cant make a good soup, cant do a handstand in a pool. Cant spell the word lieutenant. There are a lot of cants in my life right now.(Amy Poehler as Lesley Knope in The Possum. Parks and Recreation, 2010) Pronunciation: a-FER-eh-ses
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Causes of Homophobia - Essay Example I hope this research will provide insights with regard to the underlying causes of homophobia. Why some people fear homosexuality and others not? The answer might seem straightforward at first and it is easy to put blame on the stereotypical gender roles produced by what Judith Butler called hegemonic heterosexual matrix. However, it is important to understand homophobic psyche without any bias so that underlying roots of their fears could be revealed. I think it is essential to grasp their views in order to assuage their homophobic fears, if such thing is possible. Why homosexuality arouses such a strong response and hatred in some people? What are they truly afraid of? This annotated bibliography aims to explore the explanatory frameworks for homophobic peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s reactions. It is very difficult to understand why some people hate gays to the extent that they wish them dead or even attempt to kill them. I would like to dig the deeper causes of their homophobic fears. Furthermor e, I also hope to find out if there is a gender differentiation with regard to homophobia and whether males are more prone to homophobia than females, and whether lesbianism is more acceptable than its male counterpart. This research also aims to examine the possible links between homosexuality and sexuality of homophobic people. I would like to know if their fears are related with their own sexuality and if it is linked with their own oedipal struggles. Adams, Henry A., Lester W. Wright and Bethany A. Lohr. Ã¢â¬Å"Is Homophobia Associated With Homosexual Arousal?Ã¢â¬ Journal of Abnormal Psychology 105, No. 3 (1996): 440-445. Henry Adams and his colleagues conduct a survey with the participation of a group of homophobic men and a group of non-homophobic men in order to investigate the role of homosexual arousal in homophobic people. They find a positive correlation and reveal that the group of homophobic men shows increased penile erection to male homosexual tapes. Their finding is consistent with the psychoanalytical theories which conceptualize homophobia as latent homosexuality. The article is very useful in a sense that it shows what homophobes are truly afraid of: their own homosexual tendencies. However, the research does not answer why they fear their own sexuality. Nevertheless, it is also not clear that why homophobes represses their homosexual tendencies while homosexuals donÃ¢â¬â¢t, it might be related with the gender matrix theory or with their deeper differences vis-a-vis the oedipal struggles. Bleich, David. Ã¢â¬Å"Homophobia and Sexism as Popular ValuesÃ¢â¬ . Feminist Teacher 4, no 2/3 (1989): 21-28 In his article, David Bleach argues that sexism is the oldest form of social domination and tries to prove Lerner's claim about the primordiality of sexism. He conducts a survey with the participation of 115 first -year students at Indiana University and examines their essays on homosexuality. He notes that almost %20 of the students (both men and women) gave utterly homophobic responses, including a passive participation in a gay-bashing incident, and they expressed their homophobic feelings under the cover of Christianity. Bleich also quotes the essays of his students who compared homosexuality with the apocalypse and approved that gays should be stoned or killed, or they just Ã¢â¬Å"donÃ¢â¬â¢t deserve to liveÃ¢â¬ . Bleich also notes that there was one man in the class who is courageous enough to confess that every heterosexual young men in the class including
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Complete a project based on your choice of an investment portfolio - Essay Example In addition to this, it helps to identify the risk associated with each of the financial assets. Risk involved in portfolio investment is directly linked with the value. The willingness of an individual make investment or avoid risk is the most important factor for portfolio investment (Reilly & Brown, 2011). The investment portfolio has to be made in such a manner that maximum return can be earned from financial assets. The investment portfolio has been based from Monday 2nd March 2015 to Monday 6th April 2015. The major aim of investment in financial assets is to earn return and maximise profitability. Moreover, portfolio investment is considered to be the safest mean of earning income. The total amount fixed for portfolio investment is Ã £100,000 (Reilly & Brown, 2011). The paper analyses current market trend and the risk involved with each of the financial assets that has the potential to prevent investments. Apart from risk other factors that have the potential to affect investment in financial assets include the amount invested and the expected length for which an individual holds different financial assets. The time horizon defines the time period between the investment in financial assets and receiving the return from it. The time length is considered to be the crucial factor in portfolio investment, because it directly affects the ability of investors to minimise the overall risk involved. The paper analyses the financial market according to the data of London stock exchange and identifies the assets from which the borrower can achieve maximum return with respect to the risk involved. Investment theory focuses on the process of decision making associated with selecting the appropriate financial assets for investment that in turn has the potential to maximise the overall return earned. Investment theory defines the relation between the risk involved in investment and overall return from the financial assets. Investment in financial
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Pride and Prejudice Plot Essay Elizabeth Bennet receives two proposals; one from Mr Collins and one from Mr Darcy. Mr Collins was a tall and heavy looking man of twenty-five years. Although he was polite and well mannered he was also pompous and had a self-inflated ego. He always made never ending speeches about nothing and bored everyone to death. Mr Collins flattered everyone constantly but sometimes inappropriately. He begged to know which of his fair cousins the excellence of its cooking was owed. -By this, Mrs Bennet was offended and assured him they were in fact able to keep a good cook. This showed his lack of judgement in when to compliment. He was also quite absurd and Mr Bennets sarcasm often went completely unnoticed. For example, on page 54, Mr Bennet asked if his flatteries were prepared and Mr Collins admitted that sometimes he would think of them for his amusement! Lady Catherine de Bourgh who was his patroness employed him. He grovelled to her constantly as she paid his way; because of her, he was middle/upper class. He was a clergyman at Hunsford near Rosings, Lady Catherine de Bourghs home. When Mr Bennet dies, Mr Collins will inherit Longburn, as Mr Bennet cannot leave the house to his wife; women couldnt inherit. In Mr Collins letter, he proposes to make peace with the family. Mr Darcy on the other hand was very good looking. He soon drew the attention of the room by his fine tall person, handsome features, noble mien He is also described as a fine figure of a man. But he was soon to be discovered to be proud above his company. He was clever, but at the same time he was haughty, reserved and fastidious. He owned Pemberly Estate and got one thousand a year. -He was upper class and he knew it; He had seen a collection of people in whom there was little beauty and no fashion for none of whom he had felt the smallest interest. Darcy and Bingley had a good friendship despite many differences. Bingley was sure of being liked wherever he appeared; Darcy was continually giving offence. Darcy had no sense of humour and admitted it. He couldnt see the funny side of life whereas Bingley was light hearted and liked to enjoy everything he did. In the past Wickam and Darcy had a disagreement. Mr Darcys father had promised Wickam a place in the church but when he died Darcy refused to help him. Mr Collins first hints on his future plans in his letter to the Bennets when he writes; I cannot be otherwise than concerned at the means of injuring your amiable daughters, and beg leave to apologise for it, as well as to assure you of my readiness to make them every possible amends. On the first day of staying at Longburn, he, in a conversation to Mrs Bennet said; I can assure the young ladies that I come prepared to admire them. -Here he gave Mrs Bennet a small glimpse of his intentions. Jane Austin then gave it away saying that now having a good house and income; Mr Collins was in want of a wife. He was also pleasing Catherine de Bourgh who thought he should marry. So for the first evening Jane was the settled choice being not only the eldest, but the prettiest -this was, until he was informed by Mrs Bennet that she was soon to be engaged to Bingley (exaggeration). Then at the Netherfield Ball he asked Lizzy to dance several times and she realised she was the chosen one out of the five sisters. Mr Darcy on the other hand was far from admiring Lizzy at first and when Mr Bingley suggested he dance with her at the Meryton Ball he replied that he had not the least intention of dancing. -Bingley was dancing with the only good looking girl in the room. Here he was referring to Jane. He said Lizzy was tolerable, but not handsome enough to tempt me. Then at Sir William Lucass party, William tried to pair up the two of them and Darcy did not resist, but Lizzy brushed him off with; I have not the least intention of dancing. -this was pay back. It was at this party that Darcy realised his true feelings for her. At Netherfield when Jane went to stay, she fell ill and Lizzy being worried came to visit. Here, she noticed that Darcy was constantly watching her. Miss Bingley who secretly liked Darcy, in seeing that he was drawn to Lizzy tried to turn him against her. But all in vain, for whatever she said, he just stuck up for Elizabeth. Miss Bingley, in Mr Darcys defending her said; I am afraid Mr Darcy that this adventure has rather affected your admiration for her fine eyes. I think when she says this shes half-teasing and half jealous of him liking her. Before proposing, Mr Collins said to Mrs Bennet, May I hope madam, for your interest with your fair daughter Elizabeth, when I solicit for the honour of a private audience with her in the course of this morning? -Here, he was basically asking Mrs Bennets permission to propose. He then launched straight into his speech. Mr Darcy came to visit Lizzy and at first made light conversation, asking about her health. Then there was an awkward silence where he must have been trying to think of how to start before proceeding. -Differences are already showing through. Mr Collins first said hed chosen Lizzy almost as soon as hed met her (which was a lie) and went on to specify his reasons for marrying her. He, as a clergyman wanted to set an example to the rest of the parish, he thought it would make his happy and he was following Lady Catherine de Bourghs advice. Hed obviously planed out his speech carefully but in his reasons, he had not mentioned that he was in love with her! Darcy on the other hand offered his hand in marriage because he did love her and his opening sentence expressed this clearly; In vain I have struggled. It will not do. My feelings will not be repressed. You must allow me to tell you how I admire and love you. Mr Collins also made several insults to Lizzy when proposing to her without even realising it! For instance, he said that if she refuses, she my never get another offer. He also reminds her that if she stays single, all she may ever be entitled to is twenty-five pounds when her mother dies. Darcy put his foot in it too. After saying how much he loved her, he went on to say that it was not his wish to do so with her connections and status; His sense of inferiority -of the family obstacles which judgement had always opposed to inclination. When he was turned down he thought she was just offended; Could you expect me to rejoice in the inferiority of your connections? -To congratulate myself on the hope of relations, your connections? He also admitted to trying to split up Jane and Darcy and even rejoiced in his success of doing so. In response to rejection, Mr Collins thinks Lizzy is playing hard to get and says this is to be expected of a lady. He goes on to say all the good materialistic reasons to marry him forgetting to mention things like love. He acts as if marrying would be a good investment for Lizzy or something. He then assured her that both of her parents approved of the marriage. Mr Darcy in response to rejection is shocked and angry but manages to control himself. He asked why he had been refused and thought she must be offended by what he had said earlier; Could you expect me to rejoice in the inferiority of your connections? But after saying these words he accepted her answer. Both proposals were made for very different reasons; Mr Collins obviously proposed for convenience, whereas Mr Darcy was in love. Both men also reacted in different ways when turned down; although Mr Collins couldnt take the rejection, he was not actually bothered about anything other than having his male pride hurt. -Darcy must have been extremely upset, to him Lizzy was the woman he wanted to spend the rest of his life with but he tried not to show his emotions. They both involved a lot of snobbery in their proposal speeches. They thought that Lizzy would not reject someone of the higher class and she should be grateful that she was chosen out of all the other girls; both reminded her constantly about her status. Mr Collins was more personal mentioning both what would happen when her mother and father died but Lizzy got more angry at Darcy because of things he has said and done in the past. Mr Collins and Mr Darcy both said in much detail all the pros and cons of the marriage. In conclusion, both proposals have some similarities but they differ in the essential requirement of love.