Friday, April 3, 2020
Deductive and Inductive Reasoning Paper Name: Course: Instructor: Date: We will write a custom essay sample on Deductive and Inductive Reasoning specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Deductive and Inductive Reasoning specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Deductive and Inductive Reasoning specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Deductive and Inductive Reasoning Why is it important to get to know the conversation surrounding your topic and your argument in an academic argument? This will enable you to evaluate the points in the conversation and relate them to the main theme and allow you structure your argument in a comprehensive way. Induction is the form of reasoning in which we come to conclusions about the whole based on observations of particular instances. What is the risk of inductive reasoning? Inductive reasoning does not guarantee the truth of the conclusion that the person arrives at in a situation. Therefore, the personÃ¢â¬â¢s vague conclusion can lead him or her towards a wrong direction in the particular situation. If you notice that the four items you bought at the campus bookstore are higher-priced than the four items at the bookstore downtown, you may conclude that the campus bookstore is a more expensive place to shop. What kind of reasoning is this? Inductive or deductive? This is inductive reasoning because I will not have based my conclusion on facts of pricing on all other items in the shop but on my assumption after only observing the first purchase. A scientific principle called theÃ¢â¬ uniformity of natureÃ¢â¬ assumes that certain conclusions about oak trees growing in the temperate zones of North America will also be true for all oak trees growing under similar climatic conditions elsewhere in the world. What kind of reasoning is this? Inductive or deductive? This is deductive reasoning because the scientific method was employed in determining the principle, which explores genetic facts of the oak trees. Conclusions reached through inductive reasoning are probable because there is no guarantee that they will apply in the same situation in future occurrences. In a syllogism, if one of the series of statements called premises is false, deductive logic tells us that the conclusion must be false because to maintain the validity of the argument because for the argument to be warranted it must make sense. Use deductive reasoning to find the best answer.If there are no dancers that are not slim and no singers that are not dancers, then which statements are always true? The first premise states there are no dancers that are not slim. The second states there are no singers that are not dancers. The best answer is that all singers are slim because from the first premise we deduce that every dancer is slim and the second premise suggests that every singer is a dancer. Use deductive reasoning to choose the best answer.This is data supplied by the cabbage growers union report for 2007: 80% of cabbages collected were heavy (over 0.5 kg), 10% of cabbages were green, 60% were red and 50% were big (having a diameter of over 10 cm). Which of the following statements must be false? a) All red cabbages were not big. b) 30% of the red cabbages were big c) There were no cabbages that were both green and big d) half of the cabbages were small. The false statement is that 30% of the r ed cabbages were big this conclusion does not relate with the premises of red and big cabbages. The percentage is wrong and invalid. Use a 3-part syllogism to answer this. Change the following invalid conclusion to make it valid. You have to be 16 years old to get a driverÃ¢â¬â¢s license. Abby will be 16 years old tomorrow. Therefore, Abby can now buy a car. For the conclusion to be valid, it must be true just as the premises. Therefore, in the scenario the first premise is that you have to be 16 years old to get a driverÃ¢â¬â¢s license. The second is Abby will be 16 years old tomorrow. The idea of buying a car does not relate to the premises. Thus, the correct conclusion is Abby will get a driverÃ¢â¬â¢s license tomorrow. Answer the following in one sentence.A warrant is an underlying value or assumption that often goes unstated in an argument. It is important to be aware of the warrant because the opposing position can object to and argue against the warrant. What is the warr ant in the following claim? The first four years of college education should be provided free to all American citizens who are able. There will be many able Americans in colleges in the first four years of college education since it will be free. Write a paragraph that explains the similarities and differences between the three forms or structures of argument: Classical, Toulmin and Rogerian. Rogerian argumentation entails the pacified rapport between the writer or speaker and audience. It does not involve strict logic or logos but employs the characteristics of pathos and logos where the speaker or writer negotiates with the audience and respect their contrary views. Toulmin argumentation involves practical instances, which justify the developed ideas, and it requires data, claims, warrants, backing, rebuttal and qualifiers for the justification. An argument can be analyzed effectively with Toulmin argumentation. Classical argumentation refers to a rhetoric that captures and hooks the mood of the audience through an introduction, confirmation, concession, refutation and conclusion for effective persuasion. All three are similar in that they work in communicating a unique idea to the audience. Classical and Toulmin argumentation employ logos in terms of facts and data while Rogerian deals with pathos and ethos in terms of empathic listening. Unlike the other types, classical argumentation has an introduction and conclusion.
Sunday, March 8, 2020
WHITE-COLLAR CRIME essay WHITE-COLLAR CRIME essay WHITE-COLLAR CRIME essayÃ The term white-collar crime was first used by criminologist Edwin Sutherland back in 1939 for the various nonviolent crimes usually committed in commercial areas for financial gain (McNISH,Ã 2010). There is a common misconception that the white-collar crimes do not have victims, and thus they are not that dangerous. Indeed, these crimes are committed without the use of weapons or threats of physical violence, but it does not mean that they are really harmless. According to the FBI, in the United States white collar crimes steal more than $ 300 billion a year (Gottschalk,Ã 2011).All kinds of white collar crime are taking place in our community nowadays. The most wide spread crimes are fraud, fraud with bankruptcies, bribery, computer fraud, credit card fraud, counterfeiting and securities, corporate appropriation of funds, identity theft (using other peoples financial documents), securities transactions which use insider information, insurance fraud, mo ney laundering, obstruction of justice, perjury, tax evasion, economic espionage, artificial price bubble, etc (Williams,Ã R. (2013).With the rapid development of Internet technologies, there is a rapid development of Internet fraud schemes. For example, online investment scheme is one of the recent ones. Commission on Securities and Exchange Commission on Law Enforcement, and criminal trials indicate that criminals use two basic methods to manipulate securities markets for personal gain. First, in so-called pump-and-dump projects, they usually disseminate false or misleading information in order to cause a sharp rise in stock prices which are not in demand, or shares of companies not having substantial assets and leading operations. Immediately after that they sell their shares of such companies to get substantial profits before the stock price falls back to its normal low level. All other buyers of the stock, unaware of the falsity of the information, become victims of the schem e as soon as the price falls.For example, in one federal prosecution in Los Angeles, the defendants purchased shares in a bankrupt company NEI Webworld, Inc. for the sum of 130,000 dollars, directly or through an intermediary. Assets of NEI Webworld, Inc. had been liquidated several months before. Then the defendants sent e-mail messages to hundreds of Internet bulletin boards, falsely stating that wireless telecommunications company planned buyout of NEI Webworld. At the time defendants purchased shares of NEI Webworld, share price ranged from 9 to 13 cents apiece. However, one day share price of NEI Webworld rose in 45 minutes from $8 per share to $15.5-16, and half an hour later it fell to 25 cents per share. The defendants made Ã¢â¬â¹Ã¢â¬â¹a profit of 362,625 US dollars (Benjamin,Ã 2011).In another federal case in Los Angeles, a man who worked for California company PairGain Technologies, created a fake website Bloomberg news, which had fake news about the impending PairGa in Technologies acquisition by an Israeli company. He sent fraudulent e-mail messages with links to fake Bloomberg news site to financial news bulletins. On that day PairGain Technologies shares rose by about 30% before the company issued its own refuting press release (Wanless,Ã 2010).At the moment in San Diego, there is a federal prosecution of massive fraud using the Internet and telemarketing to attract potential investors in the so-called general partnerships involving investments in high technology, such as Internet shopping mall and Internet access providers. The scheme defrauded more than 3,000 victims nationwide for nearly $ 50 million (Miller,Ã 2013).Corruption, as one of the types of economic crimes, is very common in our society and it slows the development of the country. In the anti-corruption fight it is recommended to implement legislative reform, which would bring not harsher penalties for corruption, but simplification and reduction of state control (reducing t he frequency of inspections, tax cuts) in order to reduce the very possibility of abuse official position.However, legislative actions of the State can not make a decisive breakthrough in the fight against corruption (at least because of the fact that the fight against corruption sometimes is headed by corrupt officials). Decisive success is only possible by increasing the dependence of the state of citizens. This requires such long-term institutional reform as reducing the number and size of authorities, creation of special or even independent of the State institutes authorized to investigate allegations of corruption (for example, Sweden and some other countries have institution of Ombudsman), introduction of ethical standards for authorities, etc. Finally, the fight against corruption is impossible without the help of whistleblowers. In the US, the informant receives from 15% to 30% of identified material damage and he is protected from persecution of violators (Kim, 2012).Econom ists say that successful fight against corruption provides immediate benefits that are many times higher than the related expenses. According to some estimates, $1 spent for the fight with corruption brings an average of 23 dollars in the fight against corruption at the level of state and about 250 dollars in the fight at the international level (Brody,Ã 2010).General recommendations to fight white collar crime in the community include the following actions by the state:ensuring political and economic stability in the societycreating legal framework necessary for effective fight against economic crimesimproving the system of government agencies dealing with economic crimesincreasing control of the public authorities for the activities of enterprises, which commit most economic crimes, including the activities of their officers and materially responsible personsstrengthening preventive, precautionary actions of authorities fighting with economic crimes (in particular, explore condi tions that contributed to the commission of crimes and take measures to prevent further similar crimes).Fighting white-collar crime is one of the main problems of modern society. This struggle must be carried out in all possible ways. Since the damage from such crimes is huge, the end justifies any means. According to the FBI, between 2007 and 2009, white-collar crimes amounted 3.8% of all crimes committed in the United States. Despite their relatively small number, annual average white-collar crime costs victims much more than ordinary theft or robbery. For example, average property crime costs a victim $1.8 thousand, while the average white-collar property crime costs $9.2 thousand. White-collar crimes today account 42% of all crimes committed by using a computer (Akopyan,Ã 2010). Many experts expect the growth of this number. According to National Fraud Center, the number of arrests for white-collar crime, especially fraud and misappropriation of corporate funds, has increased dramatically over the past few years, while the number of arrests for crimes related to violence against the person declines.White-collar crime is very dangerous. It causes great damage to society and country as a whole and, ultimately, each of us. Today, fight with this type of crime is of utmost importance. State and federal laws, and the US Constitution give the federal government the authority to curb white-collar crimes. A number of federal agencies, including FBI, Tax and the US Secret Service, US Customs Service, Agency for Environmental Protection, deal with white-collar crimes. In addition, most states use their agencies to fight white-collar crime. Penalties for white collar crime are very strict, much more severe than for other crimes (Waldie,Ã 2010).
Thursday, February 20, 2020
Accounting for Decision Making - Essay Example Break-even level of sales = Break-even units*Selling Price (Keiso, 1999) = 148148.15*170 = $25,185,185 Strategy #2 Fixed Cost = $25,000,000 Selling Price = $200 Variable Cost = $35 Break-even level of output = = = 151,515 units Break-even level of sales = Break-even units*Selling Price = 151515.15*200 = $30,303,030 Desired Target of Profitability The company's desired profitability target is $4 million. According to the break-even level of sales, the company must exceed the above revenue levels according to both strategies in order to be able to make profits. If the output levels, as given in the table, are taken into consideration for calculation of optimal revenue which exceeds breakeven and offers the firm with its target profitability level, the following table would provide the relevant answers to base our analysis with. Strategy 1 Ã Selling Price = $170 Estimated demand (units) Estimated Revenue ($) Profit ($) 150,000 $25,500,000 $314,815 180,000 $30,600,000 $5,414,815 200,0 00 $34,000,000 $8,814,815 Hence, if the company undertakes strategy 1, as can be seen in the table above, output levels of above 180,000 units would allow the firm to fulfill and exceed its target profitability level. This range of output also fulfills the break-even level of output therefore the firm is satisfying its desired profitability level. (Keiso, 1999) ... This level of output also has the highest probability of consumer demand levels hence the firm will benefit from undertaking this level of production and fulfilling its profitability targets. (Keiso, 1999) Margin of Safety Margin of Safety: Budgeted/Actual Sales - Breakeven Sales (Keiso, 1999) Margin of Safety (%) : MOS/(Budgeted/Actual Sales) (Keiso, 1999) Strategy 1 Ã Ã Estimated demand (units) Breakeven Sales (units) Margin of Safety (units) Margin of Safety (%) 150,000 148,148.15 1,852 1.23% 180,000 148,148.15 31,852 17.70% 200,000 148,148.15 51,852 25.93% Strategy 2 Ã Ã Estimated demand (units) Breakeven Sales (units) Margin of Safety (units) Margin of Safety (%) 150,000 151515.15 -1,515 -1.01% 180,000 151515.15 28,485 15.82% 200,000 151515.15 48,485 24.24% As stated above, the margin of safety can be expressed in either units or a percentage of the total estimated sales. These figures are important for key decision making for managers because it shows the extent by which the projected sales exceed the break-even sales. The margin of safety is an important measure of risk as it shows the amount of sales which a firm can afford to vary without incurring a loss. The higher the number, the more beneficial it is for the firm since the company would be able to withstand fluctuations in sales. A drop in the levels of sales, lower than the margin of safety would alarm the management since it would cause losses for that particular period for the firm. (Keiso, 1999) Decision The decision of whether the company should go ahead with the new product should include many other ratio and cash flow analysis and evaluations so that the management, even though they cannot avoid any risks, are able to come up with more suitable decisions. However, based
Wednesday, February 5, 2020
Animals and the Myriad Ways They Can Kill or Heal Us - Essay Example This is in as much as the sting from the bee itself is fatal if the subject in discussion has encountered a fierce be attack from many bees whose result is incapacitation if not death. On the bright side, controlled bee stings are probably one of the first natural cures for arthritis (Krylov et al., 2007, p. 23). In the ancient civilization of countries like Egypt, India, Greece, Babylon and china bee venom was used for apitherapy. The bee venom in itself is composed of very complicated mixtures and combinations of peptides, very low molecular components and proteins (Bogdanov, 2012). In this mixture the main compositions are proteins and peptides. Its fresh counterpart mainly differs from it in regard to the volatile components but the biological activity is similar. Polypeptides: the constituents of polypeptides are the very small organelles that are composed of more than one amino acid with the main component of it being the melittin. This main component contains 2840 daltons and as a result it assumes a tetrameric form (Giri, et al., 2010, p. 95). The melittin and the protein electrophoretic patterns are typically of the honey bee species. Proteins: this component in itself is one that is catalysts specific in its reaction and since bee venom has around 5 enzymes, there is existence of very small quantities of very minimum or low molecular compounds which in themselves are not similar in any way (Bogdanov, 2012, p. 6). These may include amino acids, sugars, minerals and catecholamines. In the case of sugars, we see that they have been identified in bee venom preparations which is collected with a collector while preventing the likelihood of a contamination by pollen and nectar thus in most cases if not all, it usually does not contain carbohy drates. Composition of the dry matter of bee venom: The protein group has components that include Phospholipase A2, phospholipase B and hydraluronidase. Its counterpart i.e. peptides has
Monday, January 27, 2020
Impact of Human Activity on Migratory Activity Bird migration and the impact of human activity on migratory activity Migration is the movement made by animals between two separate locations on a regular basis for the purpose of accessing resources provided by these different sites (Alcock, 2013). Migration is a common process throughout the entire animal kingdom. For example, there is the migration of the Monarch butterfly across North America (Brown and Chippendale, 1974), the Atlantic salmons journey from river to ocean (Hansen, 1993), the marine turtles epic movement from feeding ground to breeding ground (Morreale et al., 1996) and finally there is our own species migration across national and international borders. The focus of this discussion however is the migration of Birds; most specifically looking at how, why and when they migrate and focusing on what exactly our impact as humans has on this very important phenomenon in the life cycle of many bird species. Ã Ã Ã Defining how migration first occurredÃâÃ involves looking back over the history of migratory species and finding an evolutionary origin to the migratory lifestyle. In actual fact migration has evolved on several different occasions within the class Aves as shown in figure 1 which looks at the separate origins of migration within the family Turdidae. The multiple evolutionary origins of migration suggest that there are numerous reasons as to why adopting a lifestyle that involves moving between different areas is advantageous to a species (Outlaw et al., 2003). With any adaptation, there must be a selection pressure forcing a species to develop a new strategy to be successful (Williams, 2008). In the case of bird migration, the seasonal variability of primary resources is a major driving factor for migrating but the changing climate conditions throughout the year is also one of the main benefits of being able to migrate (Alerstam, 2003). Birds can be long distance migrators, such as the Sooty shearwater, a sea bird that migrates approximately 64,000 km in 260 days with an daily travel distance of 900km (Schaffer et al., 2006). This heroic migration between North America and New Zealand is one of the largest migrations by a bird. In contrast the Spotted Owls of the Sierra Nevada have been observed to be altitude migrators, of short distance migrators, as they have a wintering site which is between 0.6-1.0 km closer to sea level than their usual nesting ground (Bias and Gutierrez, 1992). The comparisons between the journeys made by these two birds shows how two different environmental pressures can lead to the same solution. The long distance migrators were driven to travel across continents due to the need to find a sustainable food source in changing seasonal conditions while the altitudinal migrators are driven to move based on climatic conditions (Jenni and Kery, 2003). If migrating offers species a richer su pply of resources and a more favourable environment to survive in then why do only some species of birds migrate? As with many things in the natural world migration has its costs as well as its benefits, the costs and risks associated with migration are so high that not every species is adapted, nor needs to undertake the challenges migration creates. In order to travel such distances individuals need to be able to store resources by carrying extra weight leading up to the migration. This store must then be accessed during the flight meaning the individual must be able to alter their metabolism to store and release fats efficiently (Jenni and Jenni-Eiermann, 1998). Finally the risk of death during this journey is high as there many factors at play in the success of making the trip. The final aspect of migration is how species successfully manage to navigate from one location to another regardless of distance. There are three means of orientating observed in birds and they are pilotage, compass orientation and true navigation (Alcock, 2013). Pilotage is common in species such as homing pigeons where landmarks are used as navigational cues (Mehlhorn and RehkÃ ¤mper, 2009). These landmarks could be environmental, such as rivers or forests but can also be artificial, in particular tall buildings and major roads. Migrating from one location to another without the use of cues requires a species to have a compass orientation and understanding of which direction it needs to travel to reach the location. An experiment done on the migratory European Robin showed that they can orientate using geomagnetic cues through a sense that is localised to the right eye (Wiltschko et al., 2002). True navigation is when a species has the ability to navigate towards the home location without any navigational cues and regardless of the direction (McFarland, 1999). Having summarised the integral mechanisms behind migration I will now spend the remainder of this discussion focusing on what our impact as humans is on the migration of birds. Human interference on the animals we share the earth with is becoming an increasingly more serious problem. The effect we have on terrestrial migratory species may seem obvious as land use expands into new, wild territories but our effect on birds as they migrate through the power of flight is somewhat more complex. There are many factors that contribute to how we disrupt the migratory routes, territories and even the birds themselves. In parts of southern Europe and Northern Africa the illegal shooting and netting of birds has become an increasingly popular industry. In Egypt 700km of nets are put up along the coastline designed to trap thousands of migrating passerine birds such as willow-warblers, red-backed shrikes and barn swallows all of which are illegal to catch under the national law (Salama, 2016). Recently there has been a strong push for the local authorities within Egypt to enforce the regulations that are in place as these nets are positioned to intersect with one o f the major migratory flyways from Africa to Eurasia as shown in Figure 2 where the area in question is within region 2. This area is not only targeted by nets in North Africa but many southern European countries such as France and Spain also engage in similar practices involving illegal netting.ÃâÃ In Italy, particularly in the Sicily region, shooting of birds is a common sport when migrators are making their journey to warmer climates in Africa. Unlike the mist netting practices, game hunting is legal to permit holders and the Italian authorities allow the 710,000 hunters to shoot 30 birds a day over a 2 month period (CABS, 2015).ÃâÃ A case against illegal hunting of birds has recently reached EU law regarding the trapping and commercial caging of birds in Malta. Many of the birds targeted are rare or protected species such as the endangered Pallid Harrier, the Purple heron and the Turtle dove (Raine et al., 2015). While the fight against illegal hunting and shooting o f these birds is ongoing, the effects of these activities in undoubtedly having a negative impact on their success. Migrating to breeding grounds that are better equipped with resources and protection should be an adaptation for success in these species. Instead they are being illegally hunted, trapped and shot while en route over this area resulting in a much lower number of birds successfully reaching breeding sites. Undoubtedly this seriously damages population size of these European migrators and puts increasing strain on the challenging journey they make twice every year (Hirschfeld and Heyd, 2005). This particular study by Hirschfeld and Heyd (2005) reports that hunters are legally allowed to kill just 24 species of European native birds however a total of 82 different species were recorded to have been hunted that year. Despite the obvious illegal activity being done there is still a relaxed enforcement of these regulations across Europe and North Africa and widespread di sagreement around how to resolve the problems we, as humans, are causing. The current population of humans on earth is 7.5 billion with an annual growth so far, from January March 2017 is nearly 17 million (World population clock, 2017). As the global populations increase so to do food demands and a pressure to convert unused land into cropland or an expansion of existing urban regions. This unfortunately leads to widespread deforestation as the need for space increases on a daily basis (Lambin and Meyfroidt, 2011). Deforestation is threatening the ecosystem in which many migratory birds depend on. The cloud forest in Central America is under threat due to increases in forest conversion. Many of the birds species in this region are altitudinal migrators and rely on the cloud forest for breeding (Cox, 2010). That is a very localised example of how deforestation is impacting migration but on a much wider scale the destruction of tropical and deciduous forests has a huge impact on birds migrating between the two tropics. The American Redstart, a smal l passerine bird, winters in the Caribbean, South America and Central America before migrating north to North America, and Canada to breed (Sherry Holmes 1997). Breeding success in these birds depends on the quality of both the wintering and breeding habitat and disruption to tropical forests in South and Central America and to deciduous forests in North America has influenced the reproductive success of breeding pairs in these regions (Norris et al., 2004). Deforestation is not the only interference to habitat we are causing, our need to continuously change landscapes so as they are better suited to our increasingly more developed societies is impacting many important habitats for migratory birds. Conversion of open land into man made developments can lead to many environmental disruptions. One case that I have a personal interest in is the proposed development of a new dual carriageway between Belfast and Londonderry in Northern Ireland. While there is widespread agreement that the existing A6 road has seen an increase in use over the past 10 years (Johnston, 2016) the proposed route of the new road has been highly controversial. The area in question isshown in Figure 3 and the proposed route passes straight through sensitive land that is used by Whooper Swans wintering in Northern Ireland. According to the RSPB Whooper Swans are an amber list species due to their small population and limited breeding areas. The swans migrate to the UK from Iceland to winter and this particular area in figure 3 is a highly important habitat for migrating pairs. The fields are flooded regularly by the bordering Lough Neagh and so are a rich feeding habitat for these migrating birds (RSPB). A number of local and national environment agencies and organisations are working with the the Department of Infrastructure to find a compromise that protects this nationally important habitat for the Whooper Swans. While the effect on these swans is yet to be seen as work on the new road is only reaching preliminary stages this year it will undoubtedly cause disruption to these wintering populations in the years to come. While deforestation and urban development is a direct way in which we are destroying habitats of migratory birds an indirect way is through climate change. It is no secret that human activity is massively contributing to the speed at which climate change is occurring and some impacts of this is loss of habitats, reduced food availability and changing season lengths disrupting migration times (Travis, 2003; Bradshaw, 2006; Crick, 2004). In the UK we are seeing a lengthening of seasons meaning birds are arriving earlier and departing later (Sparks and Mason, 2004). While this can be considered a positive for UK bird numbers the migrating species arriving early could be disadvantageous to their need of resources. While the birds may be arriving early due to the changing home territory climate and the extended migratory territory season, food resources often do not sync with this change in habit. What is being observed is an increasingly unsuccessful first brood of early arrivers due to the food supply, whether it is insects or berries, not being available (Harrington et al., 1999). An example of a bird effected by this is the Waxwing, a Northern European and Scandinavian passerine bird that has increasingly been migrating to the UK during winter to access food supplies. This is because with climate change there have been fewer berries in the Northern and Boreal forests forcing the Waxwing to expand their migration further to the UK (Huntley, 2008).  One of the most common migratory flyways is from Africa into Europe. Figure 4 shows the different routes the Montagu Harrier uses to get from the Sahel region of Africa across the mediterranean into Europe. While I have already discussed the dangers of migrating across North Africa and Southern Europe regarding hunting, it is the journey across the Sahara desert that I will now be focusing on. The Sahel region is dominated by the Sahara desert with most of the land area being dry, arid land with the outskirts and coastal regions being populated and used for agriculture (Zeng, 2003). However in the decade the Sahel region has been under drought conditions meaning a lot of the once arable, green land is under going desertification, hence why there is a popular notion that the Sahara is expanding (Foley et al., 2003). Travelling across desert is not an easy journey to make. There is limited water, food, roosting sites and the climate is hot and dry. This means that birds such as the Mon tagu harrier (figure 4) or the Garden Warbler, both of which are summer migrants in the UK and Europe, need appropriate energy stores to attempt the journey (Jenni and Jenni-Eiermann, 1998). With this area of desert land expanding it makes the already challenging journey even more demanding on energy stores and as a result many of the smaller passerine birds such as the Garden Warbler are not as successful in migrating across Africa. Most species can not attempt the crossing in still air and require prevailing winds across the desert to aid in flight (Barboutis et al., 2011). With climate change set to continue the drought in the Sahel region migrating across this major ecological barrier successfully will become increasingly more challenging with a lot more pressure being put on stop off sites in North Africa and Southern Europe where there is already so much competition and hunting occurring (Trierweiler et al., 2014). Stop off sites are crucial to the success of long distance migrations especially when birds are flying across challenging terrain or resourceless water. These stop off sites tend to be rich habitats that are used by migrants for intensive feeding to re stock fuel supplies for the next leg of the journey (Pomeroy et al., 2006). Common stop off sites are mud flats as they are rich in resources and often have low predation risks as migrants flock together on the shore. Species like the Sandpiper use coastal mudflats as stop over sites and a study observing site selection based on disturbances, predator presence and food abundance was conducted with results showing no preference of site when there are land disturbances or predator presence. The study by Pomeroy et al, (2006) did however provide significant results on site seleciton based on food supply indicating that this is the main purpose of choosing these sites for stop over points. One of the serious impacts of climate change i s rising sea levels and so, low lying coastal areas such as mud flats will gradually becoming permanently flooded as a result (Church and White, 2006). Sadly this means that not only are destination sites being lost but so to are the stopover areas that are essential for long distance migrators. Fighting climate change is one of the biggest environmental challenges we are undertaking. One method of cutting down the global carbon emissions, in an attempt to slow down the greenhouse effect and thus climate change, is increasing the production of renewable energy (Mitchell, 1989). Renewable energy offers clean production of resources that our expanding population demands and wind energy has made significant in roads in many countries. Unfortunately for migrating birds wind turbines are a serious hazard on their already difficult journey. Off shore wind farms are frequently causing disruption to flocks of nocturnal migrators flying across the baltic sea which has a large number of wind farms. A study taking observations of the collision frequency at a german offshore wind farm recorded a total of 442 birds of 21 different species were killed due to direct collision or subsequent death from injury over a one month period (HÃ ¼ppop et al., 2006). While renewable energy is an impo rtant step towards fighting climate change, wind farm locations should be planned around major migratory flyways to reduce the impact they have on bird species. It is easy to focus on how we negatively effect migrating birds but it is equally important to highlight the positives. While climate change has resulted in a change in migration times due to longer seasons it also has meant that, particularly in temperate latitudes, there has been an increase in the length of the breeding season (Sparks and Mason, 2004). Small passerine bird that migrate breed in the UK typically have two broods during the breeding season if the food availability and weather conditions are right. However the increase in length of this breeding season has seen a boost in successful 2nd broods witÃâÃ some species such as the Reed warbler having as many as 5 broods over one season (Halupka, 2008). This increased success is due to the prolonged food supply allowing the fledglings to heighten their fitness and thus increase their chance of survival to adulthood. However as mentioned previously the success of the longer breeding period is dependent on the migrat ory species arriving at a peak time where resources and weather conditions are adequate to sustain a breeding population (Harrington et al., 1999). Another negative human effect, that can also be deemed a positive, is urbanisation. Many species of migratory birds require navigational cues as means of finding flyways and locations. While in a natural environment these cues can be forests, rivers or mountains, man made structures can also prove to be very useful navigation aids (Kamil and Cheng, 2001). Studies into navigation and route choice of homing pigeons has shown that they choose to follow motorways and railway lines, using entrances and exits to navigate to their home territory (Lipp et al., 2004). Finally, the recent initiatives of environmental agencies in the UK, such as the RSPB, to get involved and interact with garden birds has seen the number of households putting out regular bird food rise dramatically (Robb et al., 2008). While supplementary feeding provides our native garden birds, such as coal tits and blue tits, a year long food supply it also provides an invaluable resource for migrating birds. One species in particular that has started to expand its migration distance to include the UK is the Blackcap. While blackcaps were a rare site in UK gardens several decades ago they are now becoming a familiar winter addition to the suburban gardens. In the 1950s ornithologists began to notice this change in migration route, instead of choosing a south westerly migration into Spain, blackcaps have evolved a successful new route into the UK (Plummer et al., 2015). As human activity continues to threaten not just the migration of birds but global biodiversity as a whole, the Blackcaps success story is a welcomed positive of our impact on the world around us. Migration is an important adaptation in the life cycle of birds and allows many species to access resources that are necessary to survival. The evolution of a migratory life style was driven by environmental selection pressures and is now being inhibited by artificial pressures. As human activity becomes increasingly more intrusive on the environment the stress on migrating birds to navigate successfully, journey across challenging conditions and to find suitable territories is becoming ever more difficult. With stricter enforcement on hunting and capturing restrictions in Europe and North Africa the major African to Eurasia flyway could become a much safer route for migrating flocks. While that is something that can be controlled, the rate of population increase of the human race is getting higher and higher and so is the demand to provide resources, both land and food, for the population. If we changed our agricultural industry so that we are producing crops at a much more efficien t rate, the need to cut down forests would lessen and in fact we would preserve rare habitats that are used not just by native species but also visiting migrators. While we are starting to make significant strides into tackling climate change by developing renewable energy sources there is still a lot of room for consideration of environmental preservation. Finally however, it is important to highlight the improvements we are making for migrating birds, while there are only a handful of positive impacts there is room to expand and create a more global effect. References Ã Ã Ã Alcock, J. (2013). Animal behaviour. 10th ed. Sunderland, Mass.: Sinauer Associates, pp.Pg. 153-168. Alerstam, T., Hedenstrom, A. and Akesson, S. (2003). Long-distance migration: evolution and determinants. Oikos, 103(2), pp.247-260. Outlaw, D. et al., (2003). Evolution of Long-Distance Migration in and Historical Biogeography of Catharus Thrushes: A Molecular Phylogenetic Approach. The Auk, 120(2), pp.299-310. Shaffer, S. et al., (2006). Migratory shearwaters integrate oceanic resources across the Pacific Ocean in an endless summer. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103(34), pp.12799-12802 Bias, M. and Gutierrez, R. (1992). Habitat Associations of California Spotted Owls in the Central Sierra Nevada. The Journal of Wildlife Management, 56(3), p.584. Butler, C. (2003). The disproportionate effect of global warming on the arrival dates of short-distance migratory birds in North America. Ibis, 145(3), pp.484-495. Jenni, L. and Kery, M. (2003). Timing of autumn bird migration under climate change: advances in long-distance migrants, delays in short-distance migrants. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 270(1523), pp.1467-1471. Jenni, L. and Kery, M. (2003). Timing of autumn bird migration under climate change: advances in long-distance migrants, delays in short-distance migrants. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 270(1523), pp.1467-1471. Wiltschko, W., Traudt, J., GÃ ¼ntÃ ¼rkÃ ¼n, O., Prior, H. and Wiltschko, R. (2002). Lateralization of magnetic compass orientation in a migratory bird. Nature, 419(6906), pp.467-470. McFarland, D. (1999). Animal behaviour. 3rd ed. Longman Scientific Technical. Mehlhorn, J. and RehkÃ ¤mper, G. (2009). Neurobiology of the homing pigeon-a review. Naturwissenschaften, 96(9), pp.1011-1025. Boere, G., Galbraith, C. and Stroud, D. (2007). Waterbirds around the world. 1st ed. Edinburgh Stationery Office. CABS, (2015). [online] Available at: https://www.komitee.de/en/projects/italy [Accessed 16 Mar. 2017]. Travis, J. (2003). Climate change and habitat destruction: a deadly anthropogenic cocktail. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 270(1514), pp.467-473. Raine, A., Gauci, M. and Barbara, N. (2015). Illegal bird hunting in the Maltese Islands: an international perspective. Oryx, 50(04), pp.597-605. HIRSCHFELD, A. A. HEYD (2005): Mortality of migratory birds caused by hunting in Europe: bag statistics and proposals for the conservation of birds and animal welfare. Ber. Vogelschutz 42: 47-74 Worldometers.info. (2017). World Population Clock: 7.5 Billion People (2017) Worldometers. [online] Available at: http://www.worldometers.info/world-population/ [Accessed 16 Mar. 2017]. Lambin, E. and Meyfroidt, P. (2011). Global land use change, economic globalization, and the looming land scarcity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(9), pp.3465-3472. Cox, G. (2010). Bird Migration and Global Change. 1st ed. Washington: Island Press. Chpt 10. SHERRY, T. and HOLMES, R. (1997). American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla). The Birds of North America Online. Norris, D., Marra, P., Kyser, T., Sherry, T. and Ratcliffe, L. (2004). Tropical winter habitat limits reproductive success on the temperate breeding grounds in a migratory bird. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 271(1534), pp.59-64. BBC News. (2016). A6 upgrade: Legal challenge to road through Heaney country BBC News. [online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-northern-ireland-38094217 [Accessed 16 Mar. 2017]. Hodges, Lindsay. [Photograph, 2017] Whooper Swans in Northern Ireland. JPEG file. Johnston, W. (2016). A6 Legal Challenge what now?. Word press: Northern Ireland Roads. RSPB. Campaign for Nature: A6 duelling proposals. [online] Available at: https://www.rspb.org.uk/our-work/our-positions-and-campaigns/campaigning-for-nature/casework/details.aspx?id=tcm:9-229175 [Accessed 16. Mar. 2017] Bradshaw, W. (2006). CLIMATE CHANGE: Evolutionary Response to Rapid Climate Change. Science, 312(5779), pp.1477-1478. Crick, H. (2004). The impact of climate change on birds. Ibis, 146, pp.48-56. Harrington, R. et al., (1999). Climate change and trophic interactions. Trends in Ecology Evolution, 14(4), pp.146-150. Sparks, T. and Mason, C. (2004). Can we detect change in the phenology of winter migrant birds in the UK?. Ibis, 146, pp.57-60. Huntley, B. (2008). Plant species response to climate change: implications for the conservation of European birds. Ibis, 137, pp.S127-S138. ÃâÃ Trierweiler, C. et al., (2014). Migratory connectivity and population-specific migration routes in a long-distance migratory bird. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 281(1778), pp.20132897-20132897. Zeng, N. (2003). ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE: Drought in the Sahel. Science, 302(5647), pp.999-1000. Foley, J. et al., (2003). Regime Shifts in the Sahara and Sahel: Interactions between Ecological
Sunday, January 19, 2020
A Raisin in the Sun In A Raisin in the Sun, Hansberry portrays obstacles that the Younger family and other African Americans had to face and over come during the post World War 2 era. Obstacles that had to be over come by the Youngers were economical, moral, social, and racist obstacles. Lorraine Hansberry, the author of the play had to face one of these as well growing up. Born in Chicago on the south side in an all black neighborhood, Lorraine Hansberry and her family had to deal with segregation. Moving to a white neighborhood in Chicago, her family had to deal with threats of violence and legal action. Her father defended the case successfully all the way to the Supreme Court.(sparknotes1) Her parents were well known in national black culture and political circles, which probably sparked her to latter become a reporter and editor for the Freedom, a black newspaper in New York from 1950-53. Hansberry relates her life situations through her play by having the Younger family deal with a similar circumstance. In the play Lena Younger or better known as mama, receives a 10,000-dollar check because her husband had past away. She decides to buy a house in Clybourne Park, which is an all white neighborhood. After finding out a black family is moving to Clybourne the so-called Organization Committee sends out a Mr. Lindner to welcome the Youngers. He d...
Saturday, January 11, 2020
Ã It was a beautiful sight, picturesque even, all around were fields of lush green grass with steep hills, deep valleys and evergreen trees. In front of him there was a lake with beautiful sparkling blue water, with beavers going about their daily business, fishes swimming and birds singing. However, as he glanced across to the other side of the lake the boy laid eyes upon an almighty cave. The water on this side of the lake was brown with dead fish floating on the surface. The banks surrounding this part of the lake were simply bare rocks threatening to crush anything with the misfortune of touching them. There were no birds singing or beavers playing. Not a single living thing dwelled on those premises and it was obvious why. Who in there right minds would rather live there than on the stunning view that was just meters from the grim scene? The boy drew his gaze away from the lake and noticed many little buildings with thatched roofs and only one floor. In front of these unusual and certainly old-fashioned buildings stood small families of people all dressed in pretty much the same way. The women wore long brown and white frilly dresses. They all looked like servants. The men also wore brown and white but these were brown tattered trousers and a white V-necked shirt. At a glance down at his attire, the boy noticed he was wearing exactly the same as the other boys that he had seen. He was tired and decided that he should get some rest; a fall from the sky into unfamiliar territory can really take it out of you. The young boy slowly advanced towards the nearest house. He was walking straight towards the 3 people stood in front of it, but the didnÃ¢â¬â¢t even seem to have noticed him. The boy was only 20 metres from them now but their gaze was still fixed to where he had first landed. He was now only 10 metres from them and could clearly see every single crevice on their skin. That was then he noticed the boy in front was not only dressed identically to him he was also exactly the same height and build with the same blonde hair blue eyes. He even had exactly the same horseshoe shaped birthmark on his neck. The young boy looked extremely confused and turned to the women in a desperate search for an explanation. To his horror, the woman was looking straight through him. This feeling of horror rapidly swapped itself with a feeling of utter disbelief, he recognised this women but where from. He opened is mouth to ask if she too recognised him. However, as soon as the first letter rolled of his tongue and dissipated into the air the almighty rumbling started again. This was much worse then the soft rumbling he had become accustomed to during his dreams. This was a full-blown earthquake style rumbling. The whole ground was shaking. The voices started again. He could finally make sense of the voices Ã¢â¬Å"Help David, the cave, helpÃ¢â¬ it started of with just the women but very quickly the rest of the people joined in. He finally realised where he recognised that woman from. It was his mum, but it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t. It couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be it had to be a bad dream. The voices were unbelievably loud now. He could not take much more of this. David dropped to his knees willing himself to wake up. He didnÃ¢â¬â¢t. Of course, he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t: He couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t. There was only one thing he could do. The young boy sprinted to the cave, as soon as his size 7 shoes made contact with the cold grey stone the voices stopped, and the rumbling subsided. The inside of the cave was massive. David was standing in what seemed to be an ally. It had a grey floor and red-stone wall. In this alley of a cave ran a small, dirty brown stream. David decided to follow the stream. The silence was deafening. He was right in the centre of his worst nightmares yet the scene he was now living resembled his dreams in no way what so ever. He was expecting an increasingly loud rumble as he became ever closer to the source of all his sleepless nights. However, it was in no way at all like this. All David could hear was the Ã¢â¬ËsplatÃ¢â¬â¢ as his feet slapped against the wet floor. All he could do was walk straight into the caves belly, he could not go back outside, he couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t face the screaming. He had to sort this, now, once and for all. The relatively small walk was taking forever, a whole hour seemed to have passed as David walked through the cave however in reality it was closer to a minute. At last, the young boy had reached his destination. It certainly was not what he had expected. He was standing on a floor of grey stone. In front of him was a ring of water. Inside this ring was a small island containing one thing and one thing only; a white, round crystal. A rickety rope bridge hung loosely over the deep murky water. This was the end; he had reached the end of the cave, the end of the nightmares. It had to be something to do with that crystal, but what? David had obviously made his mind up as he cautiously walked to the bridge. He checked the ropes, it seemed secure enough but there was only one way to find out. He raised his foot and slowly but surely placed his foot on to the bridge. As soon as his foot connected with the nearly rotten wood an almightily high-pitched scream pierced through the silence, the rumbling once again shook DavidÃ¢â¬â¢s brain, and a short stab of bright light temporarily illuminated the area before subsiding into a low shimmer. The rumbling didnÃ¢â¬â¢t stop, it got considerably worse. The bridge was shaking; water was spraying from the stream in huge waves. He had to keep going, this torture had to end. David lunged and grabbed the crystal. A searing pain swarmed through DavidÃ¢â¬â¢s entire body. A brilliant light blinded him. Everything went white. David could no longer hear the high-pitched screams; he did not feel the ice-cold water flooding over the top of him. The rumbling stopped, so did the screaming and the crystal returned to the dull colourless state in which it started. David was nowhere to be seen.Ã All this happened 14 years ago. I have been all alone here ever since, still experiencing the same horrific dreams. Although now itÃ¢â¬â¢s all changed. You are here. The man thrust his hands forwards, palms out. There was writing burnt into the skin. Help David Our Saviour. Harry Litchfield Show preview only The above preview is unformatted text This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Miscellaneous section.